Information hiding is key to good software engineering (see Item 11). Prefer making all data members private; private data is the best means that a class can use to preserve its invariants now, and to keep preserving them in the face of future changes.

Public data is bad if a class models an abstraction and must therefore maintain invariants. Having public data means that part of your class's state can vary uncontrollably, unpredictably, and asynchronously with the rest of its state. It means that an abstraction is sharing responsibility for maintaining one or more invariants with the unbounded set of all code that uses the abstraction, and that is obviously, fundamentally, and indefensibly flawed. Reject such designs outright.

Protected data has all the drawbacks of public data, because having protected data still means that an abstraction is sharing the responsibility of maintaining some invariant with an unbounded set of codein this case, with the unbounded set of current and future derived classes. Further, any code can read and modify protected data as easily as public data by deriving a new class and using that to get at the data.

Mixing public and nonpublic data members in the same class is confusing and inconsistent. Private data demonstrates that you have invariants and some intent to preserve them; mixing it with public data means a failure to decide clearly whether the class really is supposed to be an abstraction or not.

Nonprivate data members are almost always inferior to even simple passthrough get/set functions, which allow for robust versioning.

Consider hiding a class's private members using the Pimpl idiom. (See Item 43)

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