Nonmember nonfriend functions improve encapsulation by minimizing dependencies: The body of the function cannot come to depend on the nonpublic members of the class (see Item 11). They also break apart monolithic classes to liberate separable functionality, further reducing coupling (see Item 33). They improve genericity, because it's hard to write templates that don't know whether or not an operation is a member for a given type (see Item 67).

Use this algorithm to determine whether a function should be a member and/or friend:

// If you have no choice then you have no choice; make it a member if it must be:

If the function is one of the operators =, ->, [], or (), which must be members:

Make it a member.

// If it can be a nonmember nonfriend, or benefits from being a nonmember friend, do it:

Else if: a) the function needs a different type as its left-hand argument (as do operators >> or <<, for example); or b) it needs type conversions on its leftmost argument; or c) it can be implemented using the class's public interface alone:

Make it a nonmember (and friend if needed in cases a) and b) ).

If it needs to behave virtually:

Add a virtual member function to provide the virtual behavior, and implement the nonmember in terms of that.

Else: Make it a member.

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