One day I went walking along the Sardinian coast. I saw a little tide pool, maybe two feet across, with the shape outlined in Figure. I looked up and noticed that the bay I was walking around, maybe a mile across, had roughly the same shape. "What a great example of the fractal nature of geology," I thought to myself. This drawing is actually a tracing of a map of the whole northwest corner of Sardinia. When nature finds a shape that works, she uses it everywhere she can.

Naturally occurring shape

The same principle applies to software development: try copying the structure of one solution into a new context, even at different scales. For example, the basic rhythm of development is that you write a test that fails and then you make it work. The rhythm operates at all different scales. In a quarter, you list the themes you want to address and then you address them with stories. In a week, you list the stories you want to address, write tests expressing the stories, then make them work. In a few hours, you list the tests you know you need to write, then write a test, make it work, write another test, and make them both work until the list is done.

Self-similarity isn't the only principle at work in software development. Just because you copy a structure that works in one context doesn't mean it will work in another. It is a good place to start, though. Likewise, just because a solution is unique doesn't mean it's bad. The situation may really call for a unique solution.

In the first edition of Extreme Programming Explained, my advice for the weekly cycle was much more like a waterfall: write some code, then test it to make sure it works. I should have paid attention to self-similarity. Having the system-level tests before you begin implementation simplifies design, reduces stress, and improves feedback.

     Python   SQL   Java   php   Perl 
     game development   web development   internet   *nix   graphics   hardware 
     telecommunications   C++ 
     Flash   Active Directory   Windows